Appium Bootcamp is a series of articles prepared by Selenium guru Dave Haeffner, and leading Appium contributor Matthew Edwards, for Sauce Labs. Dave also authors the Elemental Selenium website, which includes tips for using Selenium, and where you can sign up for his weekly email on the topic of Selenium testing. He is also the author of the Selenium Guidebook.
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To make our tests as useful as possible, we'll want to automate when they get run. To do that, we'll use a Continuous Integration (CI) Server.
A Continuous Integration Server Primer
A Continous Integration server (a.k.a. CI) is responsible for merging code that is actively being developed into a central place (e.g., "trunk" or "master") frequently (e.g., several times a day, or on every code commit) to find issues early so they can be addressed quickly -- all for the sake of releasing working software in a timely fashion.
With CI, we can automate our test runs so they can happen as part of the development workflow. The lion's share of tests that are typically run on a CI Server are unit (and potentially integration) tests. But we can very easily add in our automated mobile tests.
There are numerous CI Servers available for use today. Let's pick one and step through an example.
A CI Example
Jenkins is a fully functional, widely adopted, and open-source CI server. It's a great candidate for us to step through.
Let's start by setting it up on the same machine as our Appium Server. Keep in mind that this isn't the "proper" way to go about this -- it's merely beneficial for this example. To do it right, the Jenkins server (e.g., master node) would live on a machine of its own.
Once downloaded, launch it from your terminal.
sh java -jar /path/to/jenkins.war
You will now be able to use Jenkins by visiting
http://localhost:8080/ in your browser.
Running Tests Locally
After loading Jenkins in the browser, we'll create a Job and configure it to run our Appium tests. Let's start with the Android tests first.
New Itemin the top-left corner
- Type a name into the
Item nameinput field (e.g.,
Build a free-style software project
This will load a configuration screen for the Jenkins Job.
- Scroll down until you reach the
Buildsection (near the bottom of the page)
Add build step
Input the following into the
cd /path/to/your/appium/test/code bundle update rake android
In this set of commands we are telling Jenkins to change directories to our test code, make sure we have the necessary libraries, and then launch the Android tests.
Save at the bottom of the page, make sure your Appium Server is running (if not, load up the Appium GUI and click
Launch), and click
Build Now on the left-hand side of the Jenkins Job screen.
Once it's running, you can click on the job under
Build History, and then click
Console Output(from the left-hand panel). In it, you should see something similar to this:
Started by user anonymous Building in workspace /Users/tourdedave/.jenkins/jobs/Appium Android/workspace [workspace] $ /bin/sh -xe /var/folders/yt/h7v9k6px7jl68q81c9sqrd9h0000gn/T/hudson6140596697737249507.sh + cd /Users/tourdedave/Dropbox/_dev/appium/appium-getting-started/code-examples/7/1 + bundle update Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/........... Fetching additional metadata from https://rubygems.org/.. Resolving dependencies... Using rake 10.3.2 Using awesome_print 1.2.0 Using json 1.8.1 Using mini_portile 0.6.0 Using nokogiri 188.8.131.52 Using ffi 1.9.3 Using childprocess 0.5.3 Using multi_json 1.10.1 Using rubyzip 1.1.6 Using websocket 1.0.7 Using selenium-webdriver 2.42.0 Using blankslate 184.108.40.206 Using parslet 1.5.0 Using toml 0.1.1 Using appium_lib 4.0.0 Using bond 0.5.1 Using coderay 1.1.0 Using method_source 0.8.2 Using slop 3.6.0 Using pry 0.9.12.6 Using numerizer 0.1.1 Using chronic_duration 0.10.5 Using spec 5.3.4 Using appium_console 1.0.1 Using diff-lcs 1.2.5 Using mime-types 1.25.1 Using rdoc 4.1.1 Using rest-client 1.6.8 Using rspec-support 3.0.3 Using rspec-core 3.0.3 Using rspec-expectations 3.0.3 Using rspec-mocks 3.0.3 Using rspec 3.0.0 Using sauce_whisk 0.0.13 Using bundler 1.6.2 Your bundle is updated! + rake android . Finished in 38.39 seconds (files took 1.52 seconds to load) 1 example, 0 failures Finished: SUCCESS
Making Sure We Have A Clean Finish
We now have a working job in Jenkins. But we're not there yet. While the job was runnning you should have seen the Android Emulator open, load the test app, and perform the test actions. Unfortunately, after the job completed, the emulator didn't close.
Closing the Android Emulator is something that Appium doesn't handle, so we'll need to account for this in our Jenkins build configuration. Otherwise, we won't leave things in a clean state for future test runs.
The simplest way to close the emulator is by issuing a
kill command against the name of the process (ensuring that the command always returns
true). That way we cover our bases in case there is more than one emulator process running or if we try to kill a process that doesn't exist. So let's go ahead and add the
kill command to our existing commands under the
Build section of our job. For good measure, let's add it before and after our test execution commands.
To get back to the job configuration screen, click
Configure from the main job screen.
killall -9 emulator64-x86 || true cd /path/to/your/appium/test/code bundle update rake android killall -9 emulator64-x86 || true
Now let's save the job and build it again. The job will run just like before, but now the emulator will close after the test run completes.
Creating Another Job
Now let's create a second job to run our tests against iOS.
To save a step, let's create a copy of our existing job and modify the build commands as needed.
- Click the Jenkins logo at the top of the screen (it will take you to the main page)
New Itemin the top-left corner
- Type a name into the
Item nameinput field (e.g.,
Copy existing Item
- Start to type in the name of the other job in the
Copy frominput field (e.g.,
- Select the job from the drop-down as it appears
This will take us to a configuration screen for the new (copied) job. Let's scroll down to the
Buildsection and modify the
Command input field under
killall -9 "iPhone Simulator" &> /dev/null || true killall -9 instruments &> /dev/null || true cd /path/to/your/appium/test/code bundle update rake ios killall -9 "iPhone Simulator" &> /dev/null || true killall -9 instruments &> /dev/null || true
Similar to the Android job, we're using
kill to end a process (in this case two processes) and making sure the command returns
true if it doesn't exist. This protects us in the event that the test suite doesn't complete as planned (leaving a simulator around) or if the simulator doesn't close instruments cleanly (which can happen).
If we save this and build it, then we will see the iPhone Simulator load, launch the app, run the tests, and then close the simulator.
Running Tests On Sauce
We've covered running things locally on the CI server, now let's create a job to run our tests on Sauce.
Let's create another copy of the
Appium Android job and modify the build commands.
Since we're not going to be running locally, we can remove the
kill line. We'll then specify our Sauce credentials (through environment variables) and update the
rake command to specify
'sauce' as a location. When we're done, our
Command window should look like this:
export SAUCE_USERNAME=your-username export SAUCE_ACCESS_KEY=your-access-key cd /path/to/your/appium/test/code bundle update rake android['sauce']
If we save this and build it, our tests will now run on Sauce Labs. And you can view them as they happen on your Sauce Labs Account Page.
An iOS job would be identical to this, except for the job name (e.g.,
Appium iOS Sauce) and the
rake incantation (which would be
Now that we have our Appium tests wired up for automatic execution, we're now able to configure them to run based on various triggers (e.g., other CI jobs, a schedule, etc.). Find what works for you and your development team's workflow, and make it happen.